© 2018 13RW Work Group, an international coalition of leading experts in mental health, suicide prevention, and education.

Research

Research demonstrates that depictions of violence and self-harm can increase the likelihood of copycat behaviors.  Adolescents are a vulnerable and highly impressionable group, frequently copying others’ behaviors or reacting in response to things they have seen.  Below is a list of some of the research in this area.

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  1. Arendt, F., Scherr, S., Till, B., Prinzellner, Y., Hines, K., & Niederkrotenthaler, T. (2017). Suicide on TV: minimising the risk to vulnerable viewers. British Medical Journal, 358, j3876.

  2. A review of the literature regarding fictional film and television portrayals of mental illness found at:  http://www.mindframe-media.info/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/7746/A-review-of-the-literature-regarding-film-and-television-drama-portrayals-of-mental-illness.pdf

  3. Australia Department of Health and Aged Care. (1999). Resource kit for the reporting and portrayal of suicide and mental illness. Retrieved from https://catalogue.nla.gov.au/Record/1909633 Google Scholar

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  5. Bakwin, H. (1957). Suicide in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 50, 749-769. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  7. Barraclough, B., Bunch, J., Nelson, B., & Sainsbury, P. (1974). A hundred cases of suicide: Clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 355-373. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  8. Barraclough, B., & Hughes, J. (1987). Suicide: Clinical and epidemiological studies. London: Croom Helm. Google Scholar

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  10. Berman, A.L. (1988). Fictional depiction of suicide in television films and imitation effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 982-986. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  11. Biblarz, A., Brown, R.M., Biblarz, D.N., Pilgrim, M., & Baldree, B.F. (1991). Media influence on attitudes toward suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 21, 374-384. Google ScholarMedline

  12. Blumenthal, S., & Bergner, L. (1973). Suicide and newspaper: A replicated study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 130, 468-471. Google ScholarMedline

  13. Bollen, K.A., & Phillips, D.P. (1981). Suicidal motor vehicle fatalities in Detroit: A replication. American Journal of Sociology, 87, 404-412. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  14. Bollen, K.A., & Phillips, D.P. (1982). Imitative suicides: A national study of the effect of television news stories. American Sociological Review, 47, 802-809. Google ScholarCrossref

  15. Brent, D.A., Kerr, M.M., Goldstein, C., Bozigar, J., Wartella, M.E., & Allan, M.J. (1989). An outbreak of suicide and suicidal behavior in high school. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 918-924. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  16. Brent, D.A., Perper, J.A., Kolko, D.J., & Zelenak, J.P. (1988). The psychological autopsy: methodological considerations for the study of adolescent suicide. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27(3), 362-366. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  17. Brent, D.A., Perper, J.A., Moritz, G., Allman, C., Friend, A., Roth, C., Schweers, J., Balach, L., & Baugher, M. (1993). Psychiatric risk factors for adolescent suicide: A case-control study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(3), 521-529. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

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  19. Canetto, S. S., & Lester, D.  (1998). Gender, culture and suicidal behavior.  Transcultural Psychiatry, 35, 163-191.

  20. Conwell, Y., Duberstein, P.R., Cox, C., Herrmann, J.H., Forbes, N.T., & Caine, E.D. (1996). Relationships of age and axis I diagnoses in victims of completed suicide: A psychological autopsy study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 1001-1008. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

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  23. Davidson, L.E., Rosenberg, M.L., Mercy, J.A., Franklin, J., & Simmons, J.T. (1989). An epidemiologic study of risk factors in two teenage suicide clusters. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262, 2687-2692. Google ScholarCrossref

  24. Etzersdorfer, E., & Sonneck, G. (1998). Preventing suicide by influencing mass-media reporting: The Viennese experience 1980-1996. Archives of Suicide Research, 4, 67-74. Google ScholarCrossref

  25. Etzersdorfer, E., Sonneck, G., & Nagel-Kuess, S. (1992). Newspaper reports and suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 327, 502-503. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

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  31. Ferguson, Christopher J. 2015. “Does Media Violence Predict Societal Violence? It Depends on What You Look at and When.” Journal of Communication 65 (1): E1–22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12129.

  32. Feuer, V., & Havens, J. (2017). Teen suicide: Fanning the flames of a public health crisis. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 723-724.

  33. Fishbain, D.A., D’Achille, L., Barsky, S., & Aldrich, T.E. (1984). A controlled study of suicide pacts. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 45, 154-157. Google ScholarMedline

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  38. Gould, M.S. (1990). Suicide clusters and media exposure. In S.J. Blumenthal & D.J. Kupfer (Eds.), Suicide over the life cycle: Risk factors, assessment, and treatment of suicidal patients (pp. 517-532). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. Google Scholar

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  40. Gould, M.S., & Davidson, L. (1988). Suicide contagion among adolescents. In A.R. Stiffman & R.A. Feldman (Eds.), Advances in adolescent mental health (pp. 29-59). Greenwich, CT: JAI. Google Scholar

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  42. Gould, M.S., Forman, J., Kleinman, M., & Wallenstein, S. (1995). Psychological autopsy of cluster suicides in adolescents. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, New Orleans, LA. Google Scholar

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  44. Media Contagion and Suicide Among the Young MADELYN GOULD Columbia University PATRICK JAMIESON DANIEL ROMER University of Pennsylvania found at http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/bioethics/nyspi/material/MediaContagionAndSuicide.pdf

  45. Gould, M.S., Petrie, K., Kleinman, M., & Wallenstein, S. (1994). Clustering of attempted suicide: New Zealand national data. International Journal of Epidemiology, 23, 1185-1189. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  46. Gould, M.S., & Shaffer, D. (1986). The impact of suicide in television movies: Evidence of imitation. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 690-694. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  47. Gould, M.S., Shaffer, D., & Kleinman, M. (1988). The impact of suicide in television movies: Replication and commentary. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 18, 90-99. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

  48. Gould, M.S., Wallenstein, S., & Kleinman, M. (1990). Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 71-78. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

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  52. Hawton, K., Simkin, S., Deeks, J.J., O’Connor, S., Keen, A., Altman, D.G., et al. (1999). Effects of a drug overdose in a television drama on presentations to hospital for self-poisoning: Time series and questionnaire study. British Medical Journal, 318, 972-977. Google ScholarCrossrefMedline

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